Improved computer models of erosion have been developed, considering soil hydraulic conductivity. The models deal with erosion of levees, dams and embankments due to overtopping. The simulations trace the formation of rills and gullies, beginning with initial overtopping and continuing to final breaching. Physical models performed at 1-g and high g using a geotechnical centrifuge have been used to calibrate the models. Previous models did not consider soil hydraulic conductivity, and although results were quite good for the formation of rills and gullies and sediment quantities, breach times were underestimated. Essentially the water flow was treated as if passing over a solid surface, not entering the soil, and the total water flow was available for erosion. Thus, breach times were underestimated. Soil erodibility parameters had to be adjusted in order to achieve good agreement with breach times. The new models developed consider soil hydraulic conductivity, and produce good agreement with the performance of the physical modeling, including breach times and the use of proper soil erodibility parameters.
Keywords: Erosion, Levees, Computer Simulations, Physical Modeling
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 Chen, Z., Stuetzle, C. S., Cutler, B., Gross, J. A., Franklin, W. R, and Zimmie, T.F. "Quantitative analysis of simulated erosion for different soils". Proceeding GIS 10 Proceedings of the 18th SIGSPATIAL International Conference on Advances in Geographic Information Systems. ISBN: 978-1-4503-0428-3, 2010  Chen, Z., Stuetzle, C. S., Cutler, B., Gross, J. A., Franklin, W. R, and Zimmie, T.F. "Analyses, Simulations and Physical Modeling Validation of Levee and Embankment Erosion." Geo-Frontiers, Texas, USA, 2011.
Today an important part of environmental study includes the study of air pollution and its sources. Since motor vehicles are one of most important contributors of air pollution in modern cities, a review of how they are utilized is important. One way of reducing air pollution, is by reducing the number of vehicles left idling in standby mode at the workplace. In this paper, we will examine the amount of pollution generated by public transportation buses in Qazvin and provide methods for controlling pollution of these vehicles. We will express that many residual functions of public transportation vehicles are not only unnecessary, but they are not economical and can do damage to the environment. General vehicles terminals are non-moving sources of pollution or contamination. This is another area in which air pollution can be reduced. Finally, we will estimate the concentration and flow of bus pollution. The use of eco-refining and catalytic converters will also be considered during this case study.
Keywords: Air Pollution, Sources of pollution, Terminals, Reduce pollution
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 R. Nicolai, K. Janni, and D. Schmidt. “Biofiltration-Mitigation odor and gas emissions from animal operation.” Mitigation Air Emissions From Animal Feeding Operation Conference; 2008.
 Karl B. Schnelle Jr & Charles A. Brown. “Air Pollution Control Technology Handbook” ORC Press, 2001.
 Jeffrey A. Lacey, Brady D. Lee, William A. Apel. “Comparison of NOX Removal Efficiencies in Compost Based Biofilters Using Four Different Compost Sources” 94th Annual Meeting and Exhibition of the Air and Waste Management Association. June 24, 2001.
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Due to low bearing capacity of soft clayey soils, in places that because of economic, military or geological conditions, we are oblige to build a structure on such soils, geosynthetic will be used to reinforce the soil and improve the bearing capacity. Particularly, in roads, geosynthetic is placed between the interface of granular materials and soft-soil sub grade to improve the bearing capacity of composite layers. In past researches, the behavior of one layer soils which had been reinforced with different kind of geosynthetic, were studied by experimental and analytical methods and some numerical models have been developed. In this paper the behavior of two layers soils (granular base-clayey sub grade) that have been reinforced with some kind of geosynthetics is investigated. Large scale direct shear tests are performed on reinforced and unreinforced samples with different geosynthetics and a comparison has been made between samples with different water contents. The obtained results show that the inclusion of geosynthetics materials improves the shear strength of two layered soils. It implies that the geosynthetic-reinforced soils in sub base layer of roads will perform better than non-reinforced ones and therefore, the load carrying capacity of basement is improved.
Keywords: Shear Strength, Geosynthetic, Large scale direct shear test, Clay, Subgrade
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 Kamalzare, M. and Ziaie Moayed, R. "Influence of Geosynthetic Reinforcement on Shear Strength Characteristics of Two-Layer Subgrade". Acta Geotechnica Slovenica, 2011/1, pp. 39-49, 2010.
 Liu, C. N., Ho, Y.H., Huang, J.W. "Large scale direct shear tests of soil/PET-yarn geogrid interfaces". Geotextiles and Geomembranes, vol. 27 (1), 19–30, 2009.
 Jesmani, M., Kashani, H. F., and Kamalzare M. "Effect of Plasticity and Normal Stress on Undrained Shear Modulus of Clayey Soils". Acta Geotechnica Slovenica, Issue 1, pp. 47- 59, 2010.
 ASTM D5321, "Standard test method for determining the coefficient of soil and geosynthetic or geosynthetic and geosynthetic friction by the direct shear method". ASTM Designation: D5321-02. ASTM, USA, 2002.
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Traffic safety in different transportation system as one of the major issues which have been considered by experts in this field and conducted research in research years in this section shows that the main difficulty in the separation field of safe transportation from non-secure transportation is impossibility to provide a comprehensive and extensible model for each system by using common models. By developing traffic simulation software in the last 2 decades, the orientation of these studies is from evaluating the safety performance functions associated with the rate and accident severity to providing alternative measures of safety performance based on the obtained results from modified micro-simulation models. The base of forming and defining these criteria is to evaluate the issue with the ongoing interaction approach and expected behavior of drivers before the traffic collisions in the mainstream.
Keywords: AIMSUN, Numerical model, Safety performance, Micro simulation
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 Leksono, C. Y., and Andriyana, T. "Roundabout Microsimulation using SUMO: A Case Study in Idrottsparken Roundabout Norrkӧping, Sweden." 2012. Mauro, R., Orazio, G., Grana, A, and Chiappune, S. "Calibration of Speed-Density Relationships for Freeways in Aimsun." Recent Advances in Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Florence, Italy, 2014.
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 Gouiouez, M., Rais, N., and Idrissi, M., "Simulation car following in urban area as Stochastic Process Using Multi Agent System." World Applied Sciences Journal 30 (Innovation Challenges in Multidisciplinary Research & Practice), pp. 407-413, 2014; DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.201 4.30.icmrp.43.
Using the seat belt in Iran’s roads has been reported 3 to 56%, and it doesn't any detailed statistics available in using this instrument in the streets. According to the statistics provided, in different countries, using seat belts in inter-urban routes is less than using it, in suburban’s routes. The main objective of this paper is examine the use of seat belts on routes within the cities less than the suburban routes. For this purpose, 300 persons were asked with this questionnaire. The questionnaire data consist of the personal information, the use of seat belts, the discomfort with the use of seat belts, the amount of discomfort with the use of seat belts, risk and safety levels, belief in the efficacy of the seat belt, the degree of concern about the encounter to a car accident, and the fear that this accident is the end of their lives and using the seat belts among family and friends (to investigate the influence of social). In this study, McNemar's test was used for data analysis as well as accuracy. The test is non-parametric statistical tests, and variables can have nominal or ordinal scales. At the end of this paper recommended some policies to increase using seat belts in inner-city routes such as making more comfortable seat belts by car makers, described in terms of using seat belts in cities to reduce injuries to contacts, better enforcement by the traffic police and etc.
Keywords: Seat belts, Inner-city routes, Driver behavior
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