Pavement infrastructure projects require large amount of soil for construction. Very often massive amount of the available soil is found to be weak, highly plastic and expansive in nature, which is unsuitable for constructions. Several studies in the past reveal nano material. Silty sand was treated with fly ash ranging from 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% by dry weight of soil. Each proportion was further treated with nano solution with four different dilution ratios of (1:100), (1:225), (1:400) and (1:600) by volume. The CBR properties were found to be highly improved on addition of fly ash and nano material to soil. Similarly, plasticity and hydraulic conductivity properties of the blends were observed to be considerably decreased with the addition of fly ash and nano material. The blends with 30% fly ash and nano solution of (1:100) yielded excellent results. Thus, the soil modified with fly ash and nano material in this research provides a feasible engineered solution to improve the quality and endurance of pavement framework practices and also offers an indubitable contribution towards the problem of fly ash relinquishment and utility.
Keywords: Fly ash, Nano material, Liquid limit, Plastic limit, California Bearing Ratio, Pavements
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Grouting is essential to enhance the integrity and ensure stability of the foundation rock by filling of all the discontinuities with the cementitious material. Trial grouting work is carried out to specify all relevant parameters required for grouting operation and finalize the most appropriate method. During trial grouting work both methods were adequately exercised and focused to thoroughly undertake the operations appropriately. To evaluate the effective grouting method between conventional and GIN grouting methods in term of time taking, grout take volume and cost effectiveness, two panels are set for drilling and grouting in the foundation area of Unit 17 Powerhouse. Trial grouting work analysis showed that both methods are effective for foundation treatment. However, the application of GIN grouting method reveals that it is more effective in the perspective of foundation treatment, economical and time-saving, which are of due concerns for project management and early completion of mega projects.
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Soil liquefaction during earthquakes is a common phenomenon. Liquefaction occurs when waterlogged sediments are agitated by earthquake shaking. Liquefaction is the mixing of sandy soils and groundwater during the shaking of a moderate or strong earthquake. If liquefaction occurs under a building, it may start to lean, tip over, or sink several feet. Liquefaction earthquake hazard occurs in areas that have low groundwater level and consist of sandy soil strata. 2001 Bhuj Earthquake produced major liquefaction in Great & Little Rann of Kutch, Banni plains, Kandla, and Gulf of Kutch; and these areas contained low-lying salt flats, estuaries, intertidal zones, and young alluvial deposits typically known for high susceptibility zones of liquefaction due to earthquake. Severe damage of many bridges, ports, buildings, embankment dams was reported in Kutch region due to liquefaction of underneath soils. The present study aims to conduct an extensive experimental investigation of soils from Kutch region to access liquefaction susceptibility and liquefaction potential of the region. Basic geotechnical characterization of soils from the region was carried out to evaluate its vulnerability to liquefaction. In the current research, 32 soil samples from 10 locations, including 5 major dams, at different depths were collected from the region to conduct a detailed geotechnical investigation. Most soils in the region were found to be cohesionless loose soil and classified as silty-sand. Results from geotechnical investigation were connected to liquefaction aspects of the region. Liquefaction vulnerability was related to grain size parameters and indices. Variation of grain size index (IGS) with fines content & d50 of Kutch soils exhibited high susceptibility to liquefaction. Shear strength parameters of soils in the region exhibited low friction angle (average 31 deg). Low shear strength parameters combined with the large settlement during saturation & shearing indicated the contractive behaviour of Kutch soils leading to large pore pressure evolution during earthquake shaking resulting to liquefaction in the region. Most soil samples from various locations of Kutch region exhibited lower FOS values indicating soils prone to liquefaction. Results from the current experimental investigation showed high susceptibility of soils in the Kutch region to liquefaction. Soil behaviour and performance of structures during 2001 Bhuj earthquake were in agreement with the conclusions made in the current study.
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Iran is a developing country whereby traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death, following the primary health-related cause of disease . Highly vulnerable individuals that are most prone to traffic accidents are cyclists and pedestrians; they suffer the highest rate of disability and death in Iran. Researchers usually suggest that traffic incidents are the cause of careless and unsafe pedestrian or driver behavior. Most common among these behaviours are running, slow walking while crossing, crossing at unmarked zones, using cell phones or otherwise being distracted while crossing, crossing diagonally, crossing when the pedestrian light indicates it would be unsafe to do so, not looking left or right before crossing, disregarding traffic signals, and so on . Apart from these, several other factors influence pedestrians and are evident in the behavior and attitude of the individuals. Previous studies have successfully influenced the role of pedestrian behavior and attitude in the traffic environment . The reference to the attitude in traffic safety literature has a particular meaning that Jalilian defined in a specific way. Attitude is considered a prediction factor of human behavior and plays a major role in determining individual behavior that will cause and/or affect traffic accidents . This paper highlights the innovative way of pedestrian education which held by the author and support of Qazvin municipality in Iran. The results prove the significant importance of Field Training of Pedestrian (FTP) in cities like Qazvin through the cost-benefit method.
Keywords: Pedestrian, Accident, Cost-benefit, Behavior, Traffic Safety, Mid-size City
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