Volume 3 - Issue 2 - 2017


Performance Assessment of Stabilized Soil with Fly Ash- Nano Material Mixes

Prasanna P. Kulkarni, Jnanendra N. Mandal

Abstract
Pavement infrastructure projects require large amount of soil for construction. Very often massive amount of the available soil is found to be weak, highly plastic and expansive in nature, which is unsuitable for constructions. Several studies in the past reveal nano material. Silty sand was treated with fly ash ranging from 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% by dry weight of soil. Each proportion was further treated with nano solution with four different dilution ratios of (1:100), (1:225), (1:400) and (1:600) by volume. The CBR properties were found to be highly improved on addition of fly ash and nano material to soil. Similarly, plasticity and hydraulic conductivity properties of the blends were observed to be considerably decreased with the addition of fly ash and nano material. The blends with 30% fly ash and nano solution of (1:100) yielded excellent results. Thus, the soil modified with fly ash and nano material in this research provides a feasible engineered solution to improve the quality and endurance of pavement framework practices and also offers an indubitable contribution towards the problem of fly ash relinquishment and utility.
Keywords: Fly ash, Nano material, Liquid limit, Plastic limit, California Bearing Ratio, Pavements

References

Journal of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering - 2017 vol. 3 (2)

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A Case Study of Trial Grouting using Grouting Intensity Number (GIN) and Conventional Method at Tarbela 4th Foundation Tarbela Dam

Muhammad Imran Shahzad, Noor Zada Afridi, Tufail Ahmad Jadoon, Sohaib Ahmad, Jawad Khan

Abstract
Grouting is essential to enhance the integrity and ensure stability of the foundation rock by filling of all the discontinuities with the cementitious material. Trial grouting work is carried out to specify all relevant parameters required for grouting operation and finalize the most appropriate method. During trial grouting work both methods were adequately exercised and focused to thoroughly undertake the operations appropriately. To evaluate the effective grouting method between conventional and GIN grouting methods in term of time taking, grout take volume and cost effectiveness, two panels are set for drilling and grouting in the foundation area of Unit 17 Powerhouse. Trial grouting work analysis showed that both methods are effective for foundation treatment. However, the application of GIN grouting method reveals that it is more effective in the perspective of foundation treatment, economical and time-saving, which are of due concerns for project management and early completion of mega projects.
Keywords: Grouting; GIN; Conventional; grout takes volume; grout time taken

References

Journal of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering - 2017 vol. 3 (2)


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Evaluation of Earthquake Liquefaction Hazard of Kutch Region

Majid Hussain, Ajanta Sachan

Abstract
Soil liquefaction during earthquakes is a common phenomenon. Liquefaction occurs when waterlogged sediments are agitated by earthquake shaking. Liquefaction is the mixing of sandy soils and groundwater during the shaking of a moderate or strong earthquake. If liquefaction occurs under a building, it may start to lean, tip over, or sink several feet. Liquefaction earthquake hazard occurs in areas that have low groundwater level and consist of sandy soil strata. 2001 Bhuj Earthquake produced major liquefaction in Great & Little Rann of Kutch, Banni plains, Kandla, and Gulf of Kutch; and these areas contained low-lying salt flats, estuaries, intertidal zones, and young alluvial deposits typically known for high susceptibility zones of liquefaction due to earthquake. Severe damage of many bridges, ports, buildings, embankment dams was reported in Kutch region due to liquefaction of underneath soils. The present study aims to conduct an extensive experimental investigation of soils from Kutch region to access liquefaction susceptibility and liquefaction potential of the region. Basic geotechnical characterization of soils from the region was carried out to evaluate its vulnerability to liquefaction. In the current research, 32 soil samples from 10 locations, including 5 major dams, at different depths were collected from the region to conduct a detailed geotechnical investigation. Most soils in the region were found to be cohesionless loose soil and classified as silty-sand. Results from geotechnical investigation were connected to liquefaction aspects of the region. Liquefaction vulnerability was related to grain size parameters and indices. Variation of grain size index (IGS) with fines content & d50 of Kutch soils exhibited high susceptibility to liquefaction. Shear strength parameters of soils in the region exhibited low friction angle (average 31 deg). Low shear strength parameters combined with the large settlement during saturation & shearing indicated the contractive behaviour of Kutch soils leading to large pore pressure evolution during earthquake shaking resulting to liquefaction in the region. Most soil samples from various locations of Kutch region exhibited lower FOS values indicating soils prone to liquefaction. Results from the current experimental investigation showed high susceptibility of soils in the Kutch region to liquefaction. Soil behaviour and performance of structures during 2001 Bhuj earthquake were in agreement with the conclusions made in the current study.
Keywords: Liquefaction susceptibility, Grain size index, Shear strength, Kutch region.

References

Journal of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering - 2017 vol. 3 (2)

[1] Singh, R., Roy, D. and Jain, S.K, "Investigation of liquefaction failure in Earthen Dams during Bhuj Earthquake," Special Session on Seismic Aspects of Dam Design, 5th international R&D conference, India, Vol. 15, pp. 40-48, 2005.
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Field Training of Pedestrian, Influence on Accident Cost in Mid-Size Cities

Hesam Shabaniverki

Abstract
Iran is a developing country whereby traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death, following the primary health-related cause of disease [1]. Highly vulnerable individuals that are most prone to traffic accidents are cyclists and pedestrians; they suffer the highest rate of disability and death in Iran. Researchers usually suggest that traffic incidents are the cause of careless and unsafe pedestrian or driver behavior. Most common among these behaviours are running, slow walking while crossing, crossing at unmarked zones, using cell phones or otherwise being distracted while crossing, crossing diagonally, crossing when the pedestrian light indicates it would be unsafe to do so, not looking left or right before crossing, disregarding traffic signals, and so on [2]. Apart from these, several other factors influence pedestrians and are evident in the behavior and attitude of the individuals. Previous studies have successfully influenced the role of pedestrian behavior and attitude in the traffic environment [3]. The reference to the attitude in traffic safety literature has a particular meaning that Jalilian defined in a specific way. Attitude is considered a prediction factor of human behavior and plays a major role in determining individual behavior that will cause and/or affect traffic accidents [1]. This paper highlights the innovative way of pedestrian education which held by the author and support of Qazvin municipality in Iran. The results prove the significant importance of Field Training of Pedestrian (FTP) in cities like Qazvin through the cost-benefit method.
Keywords: Pedestrian, Accident, Cost-benefit, Behavior, Traffic Safety, Mid-size City

References

Journal of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering - 2017 vol. 3 (2)

[1] Jalilian, M., , F. M. D., , B. M., Delpisheh, A., & Rad, G. S. (2015). Pedestrian safety in traffic environment: An E-mail-based intervention to promote crossing behaviors among medical college students. Int J Env Health Eng.
[2] Azemati, H. R., Bagheri, M., Hosseini, S. B., & Maleki, S. N. (2011). An assessment of pedestrian networks in accessible neighborhoods: traditional neighborhoods in Iran. Iran University of Science & Technology, 21(1), 52-59.
[3] Bhalla, K., Naghavi, M., Shahraz, S., Bartels, D., & Murray, C. J. L. (2009). Building national estimates of the burden of road traffic injuries in developing countries from all available data sources: Iran. Injury Prevention, 15(3), 150-156.
[4] Hashemiparast, M., Montazeri, A., Nedjat, S., Negarandeh, R., Sadeghi, R., Hosseini, M., & Garmaroudi, G. (2016 ). Pedestrian Road-Crossing Behaviours: A Protocol for an Explanatory Mixed Methods Study. Glob J Health Sci., 8(5), 27–32.
[5] Karlaftis, M. G., & Golias, I. (2002). Effects of road geometry and traffic volumes on rural roadway accident rates. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 34(3), 357-365.
[6] Banister, D. (2000). Sustainable urban development and transport-a Eurovision for 2020. Transport Reviews, 20(1), 113- 130.
[7] Aguilar, A. G., Ward, P. M., & Sr, C. B. S. (2003). Globalization, regional development, and mega-city expansion in Latin America: analyzing Mexico City’s peri-urban hinterland. Cities, 20(1), 3-21.
[8] Kashani, A. T., Shariat-Mohaymany, A., & Ranjbari, A. (2012). Analysis of factors associated with traffic injury severity on rural roads in Iran. Journal of injury and violence research, 4(1), 36. 69 Shabaniverki
[9] Azarmi, M., Sabaei, M., & Pedram, H. (2008). Adaptive routing protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks.". Paper presented at the International Symposium on IEEE.
[10] Ney, S. (2012). Resolving messy policy problems: Handling conflict in environmental, transport, health and ageing policy: Routledge.
[11] Stanojević, P., Jovanović, D., & Lajunen, T. (2013). Influence of traffic enforcement on the attitudes and behavior of drivers. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 52, 29-38.
[12] Iversen, H., & Rundmo, T. (2004). Attitudes towards traffic safety, driving behaviour and accident involvement among the Norwegian public. Ergonomics, 47(5), 555-572.
[13] Abbaszadegan, M., & Babapoor, H. (2012). Developing a Model to Predict Pedestrian Movement in Urban Spaces by Incorporating Space Syntax and EPR: Case Study Khazaneh Neighborhood in City of Tehran-Iran. OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, 4(11), 21-34.
[14] Kaparias, I., Eden, N., Tsakarestos, A., Gal-Tzur, A., Gerstenberger, M., Hoadley, S., . . . Bell, M. (2012). Development and application of an evaluation framework for urban traffic management and Intelligent Transport Systems. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 48, 3102-3112.
[15] Bahadorimonfared, A., Soori, H., Mehrabi, Y., Delpisheh, A., Esmaili, A., Salehi, M., & Bakhtiyari, M. (2013). Trends of fatal road traffic injuries in Iran (2004–2011). PloS one, 8(5), e65198.
[16] Kern, K., & Alber, G. (2008). Governing climate change in cities: modes of urban climate governance in multi-level systems. Competitive Cities and Climate Change, 171.
[17] Shabaniverki, H., Thomas, L., Figueira, M., & Sheikhlari, P. F. (2014). Using Speed Cameras, Costs and Benefits and Driver Attitude. Journal of Traffic and Logistics Engineering Vol, 2(1).

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