Micaceous soils are considered to be detrimental due to low compactability, high compressibility and low shear strength behavior; which results in failures of pavements under traffic loading, earthen dams, embankments, cuts & excavations of retaining walls etc. Mica particles are platy, fragile and resilient in nature with inherent material anisotropy due to numerous intact mica flakes foliated over each other with low stiffness & hardness unlike spherical sand particles. As a result of resilient and fragile nature of mica particles, typical failures such as potholes, differential settlement, peeling of asphalt finish, warping of bituminous layer, subsidence and distortion are common feature in micaceous soils. The conventional stabilizing agents available are lime, cement, etc. but these techniques have a negative impact on the environment and ecosystem. In this study, bentonite was used as a stabilizing agent to treat micaceous sand due to its cohesive and eco-friendly nature. Different percentages of bentonite were used to increase the shear strength of micaceous sand. Also, conventional non ecofriendly lime stabilization was also used to conduct a comparative study on effective stabilization of micaceous sand with bentonite and lime in terms of improvement in shear strength, swelling-shrinkage characteristics, compressibility and overview on environmental impacts.
Keywords: Micaceous sand, Differential settlement, Stabilization, Bentonite, Lime.
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This paper presents a study of the two-dimensional consolidation of a homogeneous clay layer subjected to time-dependent uniform strip loading. The solution was developed for the case of Impermeable Footing and Impermeable Bottom of the clay layer, for both the isotropic and cross-anisotropic cases of permeability using the Alternating Direction Implicit technique. Design charts for the average degree of consolidation for different relative layer thicknesses namely1,2,5 and 10 were produced. For each relative layer thickness, charts were obtained for various construction time factors of Tc = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5,1, 2, 5 and 10. The design charts were devoted to four permeability ratios, namely 1,5,10 and 25.The paper reveals that the effect of anisotropy on the average degree of consolidation at the end of construction period, is more pronounced during shorter construction periods than during long ones. The time factor for 50% consolidation decreases with increasing cross-anisotropic permeability and relative layer thickness.
Keywords: Anisotropic permeability, consolidation under time dependent loading, strip footing, two-dimensional consolidation, Terzaghi-Rendulic consolidation.
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Micaceous soils are generally known for their high compressibility and low compacted density behavior. Mica particles have an influence on the compaction properties of soil due to their platy shape, ability to split into very thin flakes and the inter-space within the thin flakes. The mica flakes also impart resilience to the soil, which makes it difficult to compact. The spring nature of mica flakes helps them to recover their shape, when the stress is removed. The presence of mica particles in noncohesive (sandy/silty) soil affects its grain packing. The particles of non-cohesive soils (sand, silt) are predominantly rounded particles, and the presence of mica in such soils tends to decrease the packing efficiency by increasing the size of void space within the soil mass. Mica flakes alter the packing of rounded particles (silt, sand) through bridging & ordering effects at significant percentage of mica content in soils. If mica content in soil is more than 10%, it has strong impact on compressibility, compressive strength and volume stability of micaceous soil. The current research is focused on the effect of water content on shear strength behavior of naturally available micaceous silty soil (Kutch, Gujarat). The resilience behavior of mica particles and the presence of water molecules in the inter-space of mica thin flakes were studied to understand the variation in shear strength behavior of micaceous Kutch soil (14% mica) due to the change in its water content. A series of shear strength tests were performed on micaceous Kutch soil at different water content varying from 0% to 23.5%. A series of XRD, SEM and AFM tests were also performed on Kutch soil to determine the mica content and understand the size, shape and geometric arrangement of particles (mica, silt, sand) within the soil mass. Keywords: Mica, Shear strength, XRD, SEM, AFM, Micaceous soil
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