The soil strength parameters (cohesion and friction angle) applied in the active aspect of retaining structure design or deep excavation analysis are based on the results obtained from the traditional drained or undrained axial compression triaxial shear test. However, the axial compression test does not represent the real soil lateral extension behavior for which such parameters are sought and also the volume change behavior under drained condition. This paper has presented a successful process to predict the lateral extension behavior from a series of traditional axial compression shear tests under multi-confining pressures. A modified version of Hooke's law is employed herein to predict the drained lateral extension behavior from a series of drained axial compression test results associated with an isotropic rebound volumetric change. The detail of the modified Hooke's law applied in this research has well presented to support the theoretical transfer process. The logical idea for the prediction of the drained lateral extension strength from the traditional drained axial compression test can be illustrated through the development of stress paths that the stress path of a drained lateral extension test can be intersected by many other stress paths of the drained axial compression tests in multi-combination of effective confining pressures. The drained lateral extension test behavior of deviatoric stress and volumetric strain versus axial strain curves which are achieved from multi-tests applying in Nevada sand. The fundamental behavior of interest in both the drained lateral extension and the drained axial compression tests is the stress-strain-strength behavior and the volume change. The test results from the drained lateral extension tests are successfully evaluated from a series of drained axial compression tests response coupled with the sand's associated drained isotropic rebound behavior.
Keywords: lateral extension test, axial compression test, triaxial shear test, stress path, Hook's law
 M. Ashour and G.M. Norris, "Formulation of Undrained
Behavior of Saturated Sand from Drained Rebounded Response,"
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 H-J. Yang, S. Elfass, and G. Norris, "Prediction of Drained Lateral Extension Behavior from Traditional Drained Axial Compression Triaxial Test", 14th ICE & 42nd EGGES Conference, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID, pp. 157-164, 2009.
 H-J. Yang, G. Norris and S. Elfass, "The Characteristic (or Phase Transformation) Friction Angle", 44th Symposium on Engineering Geology and Geotechnical Engineering (EGGE), Reno, Nevada, 2012.
influences the capacity and safety of highways and freeways. Headways are extensively used in different areas of traffic and transport engineering such as capacity analysis, car following and lane changing modelling, safety studies, and level of service evaluation. In this paper, the time headway distribution is investigated for an urban highway, at different flow rates during heavy traffic conditions. To better evaluate the headway characteristics, the time headways are separately evaluated for different car following combinations including passenger car following a passenger car, passenger car following a heavy vehicle, heavy vehicle following a passenger car and heavy vehicle following a heavy vehicle. Appropriate models of headway distribution are selected using Chi-Square test. Using the selected models, headway distributions are predicted for each vehicle combination at different traffic flow rates. The trajectory data used in this study was provided for a highway section in California: Berkeley Highway, I-80. For the time intervals presented in the data, the traffic flow condition for each site reflects Level Of Service (LOS) E which is considered as heavy traffic conditions. The results confirm existence of different time headway distributions for heavy vehicles and passenger cars. This is due to the existence of limitations in performance (e.g. acceleration/deceleration) of heavy vehicles as well as the difference in the behaviour of drivers in vicinity of heavy vehicles and passenger cars under heavy traffic conditions.
Keywords: Headway, Distribution, Highways, Heavy vehicles, Passenger cars
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The impact of pavement distresses on the comfort of road users has been extensively studied so far, while little attention has been paid to investigating their effect on road safety. Some types of distresses, such as the polished aggregates of road pavements, influence vehicle stopping distance. Some other types of distresses influence the behavior of drivers due to the roughness they create on the road surface. In this study, a model of driver behavior in response to road roughness is calibrated which takes into account the geometric aspects of distresses, traffic parameters and road specifications. The behavior of drivers in response to road roughness is categorized into the two states of non-reaction and reaction (which includes either braking and crossing over distresses or deviating from the path) and is analyzed using logit model. The data which were collected through personal on-site observation in Yazd city pertain to the following variables; distress location, distress area, distress length, distress width, distress type, distance from lining, average hourly traffic, the average speed of vehicles, and the number of distresses within 100 meters. These data were collected from 15 randomly-selected distress areas with arterial functionality for 450 vehicles passing them. Based on the model results, a number of factors were found to increase the likelihood of drivers' reactions when facing distress areas. These factors include distress area, distress in fast lanes, and the reduction of average hourly traffic.
Keywords: driver behavior, logit model, pavement distress, road roughness.
 Road Maintenance and Transportation Organization (RMTO),
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In Ethiopia, many researches were done on characterizing expansive soils but only a very limited number of studies were conducted on Addis Ababa expansive soil, exists on the unsaturated shear strength behavior. The present study addresses examining expansive soils in Arba Minch - a town in the Rift Valley with great portion of its terrain covered by the same soil but not considered previously. Laboratory-testing program was planned and performed on undisturbed soil samples taken from 10 locations for swelling pressure testing; and among these, one pit was allotted for unsaturated shear strength study. The laboratory test results revealed swelling pressure ranges from 74.53 to 571.29 kPa, Plasticity Index from 49 to 77%, Shrinkage Index from 81 to 117% and Free Swell from 94.0 to 165.0%. The results from unsaturated shear strength tests performed with a 50kN modified double wall triaxial machine on an undisturbed sample setting matric suction 100 kPa, 150 kPa and 200kPa for an effective consolidation pressure of 200kPa have clearly indicated the saturated case to yield smaller shear strength than the unsaturated one. The maximum deviator stress showed to increase from 107.61kPa to 174.35kPa with an increase in matric suction but the shape of the stress-strain diagram remained identical.
Keywords: Unsaturated Shear Strength, Expansive Soil, Laboratory Testing, Swelling Behavior
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Checking traffic rule observation by vehicles play an important role in every day transportation handling either for intra- or intercity travels. Also, image processing plays a great role in modern intelligent transportation system (ITS). One of the most advance ways for traffic management and rules observation studies is employing live surveillance camera videos. In this paper, a new approach toward automatic detection of traffic rules violation based on image processing techniques is proposed. The proposed method applies innovative image processing techniques for live traffic surveillance target. Based on these techniques, the moving objects including cars and pedestrians are detected, tracked and observed. At first, some preprocessing steps employed for discrimination of foreground from background of surveillance video frames. For tracking purpose, a modified Munkres version of Hungarian algorithm is applied to Kalman filtering to provide tracking predictions for detected moving objects. The tracks of detected moving objects are analyzed and if any traffic rule violation takes place, they will be detected and reported automatically. The implementation results related to the proposed method demonstrates its high performance and applicability for real traffic rule violation detection.
Keywords: Asphalt Mixture, Performance, Cost Impact, Environmental
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