Volume 1 - Issue 2 - 2015

Lateral Soil-Pile Stiffness Subjected to Vertical and Lateral Loading

Omid Taheri, Reza Ziaie Moayed, Mohammadamin Nozari

Abstract
Soil-structure interaction is one of the most important factors in the analysis; especially for complicated problems such piles are subjected to different loads. Owing to the sensitivity of pile design and analysis to geometry, loading type and soil behavior, it is unavoidable to consider the soil-structure interaction. Using subgrade reaction approach is one of the most practical method in predicting the deflection and bearing capacity of piles subjected to lateral loads. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the exact value of modulus of subgrade reaction. Many full-scale pile test have been performed in order to investigate the behavior of lateral resistance on cast-in-place concrete piles. Finite element (FE) methods also can be applied to predict the variation of horizontal subgrade reaction (???) in three-dimensional analysi. Accordingly, the FE results are compared with the results of some loading tests documented in the literature. The obtained results from numerical analyses are found to be in good agreement with the experimental measurements. The purposes of this paper are to estimate the modulus of horizontal subgrade reaction (kh) for single piles by back-analysis method and the effect of vertical load, pile length and amount of applied loads on the kh value. The results of the back-analysis method are compared to those obtained using existing relationship. Moreover, the results show FE method can be helpful to estimating soil-pile interaction behavior.
Keywords: Modulus of horizontal subgrade reaction, Back-analysis method, Lateral pile behavior, Soil-pile interaction

References

Journal of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering - 2015 vol. 1 (2)


[1] Palmer, L.A. and Thompson, J.B., "The earth pressure and deflection along the embedded lengths of piles subjected to lateral thrust.," in proceedings of the second international conference on soil mechanics and foundation engineering, Rotterdam, vol 5, pp156-161, 1948.
[2] Mwindo, J.M., "Strain dependent soil modulus of horizontal subgrade reaction," MS Thesis, University of Missouri, Rolla, MO.
[3] Kumar, S., "Non-linear load deflection prediction of single piles in sand using a subgrade reaction approach," MS Thesis, University of Missouri, Rolla, MO., 1993.
[4] Prakash, S. and Kumar, S., "Nonlinear lateral pile deflection prediction in sands," Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, vol. 122, no. 2, pp. 130-138, 1996.
[5] Sanjeev Kumar, Latika Lalvani and Maher Omar, "Nonlinear response of single piles in sand subjected to lateral loads using K_hMax approach," Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, vol. 24, pp. 163-181, 2006.
[6] Chin, Ir. Tan Yean, Ir. Sew, Gue See & Chung, Ir. , "Interpretation of Subgrade Reaction from Lateral Load Tests on Spun Piles in Soft Ground G&P," Geotechnics Sdn Bhd, 2010.
[7] Md. Iftekharuzzaman, Bipul C Hawlade, "Numerical Modeling of Lateral Response of Long Flexible Piles in Sand," Geotechnical Engineering Journal of the SEAGS & AGSSEA, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 25-31, 2013.
[8] Prakash, S. & Sharma, H.D., Pile Foundation in Engineering Practice, Wiley-IEEE, 1990.
[9] Matlock, H. and Reese, L. C. , "Generalized solutions for laterally loaded piles," Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, ASCE, vol. 86, pp. 63-91, 1960.
[10] Strom R. W., Ebeling R. M, "State of the practice in the design of tall, stiff, and flexible tieback retaining walls," Technical Report ERDC/ITL TR-01-1, US Army Corps of Engineers 1-225., 2001.
[11] K. B. S. P. Hibbit HD, "ABAQUS theory and user’s manual," 2010.
[12] Hillerborg A, Modeer M, Petersson PE., "Analysis of crack formation and crack growth in concrete by means of fracture mechanics and finite elements.," Cem Concr Res, pp. 773-82, 1976.
[13] Huang AB, Hsueh CK, O’Neill MW, Chern S, Chen C. , "Effects of construction on laterally loaded pile groups," Jouranal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental engineering, ASCE, vol. 127, no. 5, pp. 385-397, 2001.
[14] E. Conte, A. Troncone and M. Vena, "Nonlinear three-dimensional analysis of reinforced concrete piles subjected to horizontal loading," Computers and Geotechnics, vol. 49, pp. 123-133, 2012.
[15] Karasev OV, Talanov GP, Benda SF, "Investigation of the work of single situ-cast piles under different load combinations," Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, vol. 14, pp. 173-177, 1977.
[16] Karthigeyan S, Ramakrishna VVG, Rajagopal K., "Numerical investigation of the effect of vertical load on the lateral response of piles.," J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE, pp. 512-521, 2007.
[17] S. Karthigeyan; V. Ramakrishna; K. Rajagopal, "Influence of vertical load on the lateral response of piles in sand," Computers and Geotechnics, vol. 33, pp. 121-131, 2006.
[18] K. Terzaghi, "Evaluation of Coefficients of Subgrade Modulus," Geotechnique, pp. 297-326, 1955.
[19] L. Reece, W. Cox and F. Koop, "Analysis of Laterally Loaded Piles in Sand," Houston, Texas, 1974.
[20] J. Bowles, Foundation Analysis and Design, New York: McGraw Hill, 1982.
[21] N. Kimura, K. Kosa and Y. Morita, "Failure Tests on Lateral Loading Cast-in-place Concrete Piles.," 1994.

Download

Numerical and Theoretical Study of Plate Load Test to Define Coefficient of Subgrade Reaction

Seyed Abolhassan Naeini, Ehsan Taherabadi

Abstract
One of the important parameters required to evaluate the behavior of soils under loading condition is coefficient of subgrade reaction (Ks), which is being used widely to determine the kind of favorable foundation. There are many theoretical and laboratory approaches that released some relations to achieve the value of Ks. One of the most effective and fastest in-situ procedures to find Ks is plate load test (PLT). In this test a plate with 30 to 45 cm diameter is loaded through incremental multi-stage and the corresponding soil settlement is monitored stage by stage. In recent years numerical methods have been significantly used to simulate some geotechnical tests. This paper presents the three dimensional simulation of PLT, investigated by using finite element code, and compares the results obtained from site studies with the results of the numerical modelling. During verification, it was found that a constant number must be used to be multiplied in the modulus of elasticity as an input of finite element code (ABAQUS). This constant is estimated to be 3. Then, the obtained constant was used to estimate the Ks of another site. The results show that the relation has sufficient accuracy in soft soils but it cannot be reliable in coarse one. Also, the goal of this research was to explore the ability of numerical modeling to evaluate the value of Ks without performing some plate load tests, was achieved.
Keywords: Numerical analysis, plate load test, settlement, coefficient of subgrade reaction.

References

Journal of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering - 2015 vol. 1 (2)

[1] K. V. Terzaghi, “Evaluation of Coefficient of Subgrade Reaction,” Geotechnique, vol. 5 (4), pp. 297-326, 1955.
[2] A. S. Vesic, “Beams on Elastic Subgrade and the Winkler’s Hypothesis,” in 5th Int. Conference. London. vol. 1, pp. 845-850, 1961.
[3] M. A. Biot, “Bending of an Infinite Beam on an Elastic Foundation,” int. Appl. Mech. Trans., ASCE, 59, A1-A7, 1973.
[4] P. L. Pesternak, “On a New Way Method of Analysis of an Elastic Foundation Constants,” USSR, Moscow, Russian, 1954.
[5] V. Z. Vlasov, and N. N. Leont ‘ev, “Beams, Plates and Shells on Elastic Foundation,” Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 1966.
[6] M. Hetenyi, “Beams on Elastic Foundation: Theory with Application in the Fields of Civil and Mechanical Engineering,” The University of Michigan, Michigan, 1971.
[7] R. Jones, and J. Xenophontos, “The Vlasov Foundation Model,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., vol. 19, 317-323, 1977.
[8] Y. K. Cheung, and O. C. Zienkiewicz, “Plates and Tanks on Elastic Foundation: An Application of Finite Element Method,” Int. J. Sol. Struct., vol. 1, 451-461, 1965.
[9] A. Stancue, I. Lungu, “Fundatii”. vol. 1, 2006.
[10] S. R. Ziaei, and M. Janbaz, “Effective Parameters on Modulus of Subgrade Reaction in Clayey Soils,” Journal of Applied sciences. vol. 9 (22), 4006-4012, 2009.
[11] A. Marto, et al. “Foundation Size Effect on Modulus of Subgrade Reaction on Sandy Soils,” EJGE, vol. 17, 2012.
[12] Karlsson & Sorenson, “ABAQUS User’s Manual,” ABAQUS/Standard User’s Manual, vol. 2, Version 6.9. Inc., Pawtucket. Rhode Island, 2002.
[13] A. P. S. Selvadurai, “Elastic Analysis of Soil-foundation Interaction,” Development in Geotechnical Engineering, 17, Elsevier, Amesterdam, 1979.

Download

Environmental Responsibility as a Factor in Gaining Competitive Advantage in the Aviation Industry

Stefan Baumeister

Abstract
In recent years there has been increasing interest in the environmental impacts of aviation, and some airlines have begun to address this issue more seriously. At the same time, competition in the aviation industry has become much tougher. This study focuses on the question of whether showing proactive environmental behavior could work as a differentiation strategy for airlines that are acting more responsibly, and thus help them to improve their competitiveness. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire conducted among 148 air travelers on their opinions and attitudes towards environmental aspects of flying, such as a modern and fuel-efficient fleet, direct flights, and carbon offset. The results showed that indeed there are air passengers who consider the environment when booking a flight, although they were not in the majority. The study also found that the participants saw additional value in a modern fleet, direct flights, and carbon offset, however, not all of them showed a willingness to pay a premium for those aspects.
Keywords: environment, aviation, competition, differentiation

References

Journal of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering - 2015 vol. 1 (2)

[1] Green, J. “Civil aviation and the environmental challenge”. The Aeronautical Journal, vol. 107, pp: 281–299, 2003.
[2] International Air Transportation Association. (2015, October 28). Fact sheet: Climate change (June 2015). Available: https://www.iata.org/policy/environment/Documents/iata-factsheet-climatechange.pdf
[3] International Civil Aviation Organization. (2015, October 28). Environmental Report 2010. Available: http://www.icao.int/environmentalprotection/Documents/ EnvironmentReport-2010/ENV_Report_2010.pdf
[4] Button, K. “Airlines: Sustainable development in a transatlantic context”, In Rietveld, P., Stough, R. Institutions and sustainable transport: Regulatory reform in advanced economies. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2007, pp. 155–187.
[5] Gössling, S., Peeters, P. “It does not harm the environment! An analysis of industry discourses on tourism, air travel and the environment”. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 15, pp: 402–417, 2007.
[6] Rothengatter, W. “Climate change and the contribution of transport: Basic facts and the role of aviation”. Transportation Research Part D, vol. 15, pp: 5–13, 2010.
[7] Sowawattanakul, P., Wongsurawat, W. “Domestic airline networks and passenger demand in Thailand after deregulation”. International Journal of Aviation Management, vol. 2, pp: 35–53, 2013.
[8] Chapman, L. “Transport and climate change: a review. Journal of Transport Geography, vol. 15, pp: 354–367, 2007.
[9] Wittmer, A., Wegelin, L. “Influence of Airlines’ environmental activities on passengers”. Journal of Air Transport Studies, vol. 3, pp: 73–99, 2012.
[10] Mayer, R., Ryley, T., Gillingwater, D. “Passenger perception of the green image associated with airlines”. Journal of Transport Geography, vol. 22, pp: 179–186, 2012.
[11] Liou, J., Chuang, M. “Evaluating corporate image and reputation using fuzzy MCDM approach in airline market”. Quality and Quantity, vol. 44, pp: 1079–1091, 2009.
[12] López-Gamero, M., Molina-Azorin, J., Claver-Cortés, E. “The whole relationship between environmental variables and firm performance: Competitive advantage and firm resources as mediator variables”. Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 90, pp: 3110–3121, 2009.
[13] Simpson, M., Taylor, N., Barker, K. “Environmental responsibility in SMEs: does it deliver competitive advantage?” Business Strategy and the Environment, vol. 13, pp: 156–171, 2004.
[14] Lynes, J., Dredge, D. “Going Green: Motivations for Environmental Commitment in the Airline Industry. A Case Study of Scandinavian Airlines”. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 14, pp: 116–138, 2006.
[15] Shrivastava, P. “Environmental Technologies and Competitive Advantage”. Strategic Management Journal, vol. 16, pp: 183–200, 1995.
[16] Russo, M., Fouts, P. “A Resource-based Perspective on Corporate Environmental Performance and Profitability”. Academy of Management Journal, vol. 40, pp: 534–554, 1997.
[17] King, A., Lenox, M. “Does it really Pay to be Green? An Empirical Study of Firm Environmental and Financial Performance”. Journal of Industrial Ecology, vol. 5, pp: 105–116, 2002.
[18] Orsato, R. “Competitive Environmental Strategies: When Does it Pay to be Green?” California Management Review, vol. 48, pp: 127–143, 2006.
[19] Mintzberg, H., Ahlstrand, B., Lampel, J. “Strategy Safari – A Guided Tourthrough the Wilds of Strategic Management”. New York: Free Press, 1998.
[20] Porter, M. “Competitive Advantage - Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance”. New York: Free Press, 1998.
[21] Schaltegger, S., Burritt, R., Peterson, H. “An introduction to corporate environmental management”. Sheffield, UK: Greenleaf, 2003.
[22] Reinhardt, F. “Environmental Product Differentiation: Implications for Corporate Strategy”. California Management Review, vol. 40, pp: 43–73, 1998.
[23] Magretta, J. “Understanding Michael Porter”. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press, 2012.
[24] Egelhofer, R., Marizy, C., Cros, C. “Climate impact of aircraft technology and design changes”. Journal of Air Transportation, vol. 12, pp: 72–97, 2007. 48 JJoouurrnnaall ooff GGeeootteecchhnniiccaall aanndd TTrraannssppoorrttaattiioonn EEnnggiinneeeerriinngg -- 22001155 vvooll.. 11 ((22)) 6
[25] European Commission. (2015, October 28). Fuel and air transport. Available: http://ec.europa.eu/transport/air/doc/fuel_report_final.pdf
[26] Hileman, J., Katz, J., Mantilla, J., Fleming, G. ”Payload fuel energy efficiency as a metric for aviation environmental performance” in 26th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences, Anchorage, Alaska, 2008, pp. 1-11.
[27] Hansen, M., Smirti, M., Zou, B. (2008). A Comparative Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Strategies for the Maritime Shipping and Aviation Sectors. Available FTP: scholarship.org Directory: uc/item/ File: 4j3573wm
[28] Reynolds, T., Gillingwater, D., Caves, R., Budd, L., “Climate Related Air Traffic Management Final Report,” Loughborough University, 2009.
[29] Brouwer, R., Brander, L., Van Beukering, P. “A convenient truth: air travel passengers’ willingness to pay to offset their CO2 emissions”. Climatic Change, vol. 90, pp: 299–313, 2008.
[30] van Birgelen, M., Semeijn, J., Behrens, P. “Explaining proenvironmental consumer behavior in air travel”. Journal of Air Transport Management, vol. 17, pp: 125–128, 2011.
[31] Hares, A., Dickinson, J., Wilkes, K. “Climate change and the air travel decisions of UK tourists”. Journal of Transport Geography, vol. 18, pp: 466–473, 2010.
[32] Miller, G., Rathouse, K., Scarles, C., Holmes, K., Tribe, J. “Public Understanding of Sustainable Tourism”. Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 37, pp: 627–645, 2010.
[33] Thompson, D., Anderson, R., Hansen, E., Kahle, L. “Green segmentation and environmental certification: Insights from forest products”. Business Strategy and the Environment, vol. 19, pp: 319–334, 2010.
[34] Bieger, T., Wittmer, A., Laesser, C. “What is driving the continued growth in demand for air travel? Customer value of air transport”. Journal of Air Transport Management, vol. 13, pp: 31– 36, 2007.

Download

Big Data-Driven Smart Policing: Big Data- Based Patrol Car Dispatching

Walid Ben Ali

Abstract
Big Data has become one of the buzzwords today. The recent explosion of digital data has led the organization, either private or public, to a new era towards a more efficient decision making. At some point, business decided to use that concept in order to learn what make their clients tick with phrases like ‘sales funnel’ analysis, ‘actionable insights’, and ‘positive business impact’. So, it stands to reason that Big Data was viewed through green (read: money) colored lenses. Somewhere along the line, however someone realized that collecting and processing data doesn’t have to be for business purpose only, but also could be used for other purposes to assist law enforcement or to improve policing or in road safety. This paper presents briefly, how Big Data have been used in the fields of policing order to improve the decision making process in the daily operation of the police. As example, we present a Big Data driven system which is sued to accurately dispatch the patrol cars in a geographic environment. The system is also used to allocate, in real-time, the nearest patrol car to the location of an incident. This system has been implemented and applied in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi in the UAE.
Keywords: Big Data, patrol car allocation, dispatching, GIS

References

Journal of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering - 2015 vol. 1 (2)

[1] Beth Pearsall, "Predictive policing: The future of law enforcement." NAT’L Inst. Just. J. 2010.
[2] Michael Scherer, "Inside the secret World of the Data Crunchers Who helped Obama Win." Time, 2012.
[3] Viktor Mayer-Schonberger and Kenneth Cukier, "Big Data: A revolution that will transform how we live, work, and think", 2013.
[4] Adam Frank, Big Data is the steam engine of our time. NPR, Mar 12, 2013.
[5] James Manyika, Michael Chui, Brad Brown, Jacques Bughin, Richard Dobbs, Charles Roxburgh, and Angela Hung Byers. “Big Data: The next frontier for innovation, competition, and productivity”. Analyst report, McKinsey Global Institute, May 2011.
[6] Philip Russon. “Big Data Analytics”. TDWI Research, Fourth Quarter, 2011.
[7] John Gantz and David Reinsel. “The Digital Universe in 2020: Big Data, Bigger Digital Shadows, and Biggest growth in the far East”. Study Report, IDC, December 2012
[8] Doug Laney. “3D Data Management: Controlling data volume, velocity and variety”. Technical report, META Group Inc. (Now Gartner Inc.), February 2001.
[9] Jinchuan Chen, Yueguo Chen, Xiaoyong Du, Cuiping Li, Jiaheng Lu, Suyuan Zhao, and Xuan Zhou. “Big Data challenge: A data management perspective”. Frontiers of Computer science, 7 (2):157-164, April 2013.
[10] Divyakant Agrawal, Philip Bernstein, Elisa Bertino, Susan avidson, Umeshwar Dayal, Michael Franklin, Johannes Gehrke, Laura Haas, Alon Halevy, Jiawei Han, H.V. Jagadish, Alexandros abrinidis, Sam Madden, Yannis Papkonstantinou, Jignesh M. Patel, Raghu Ramakrishnan, Kenneth Ross, Cyrus Shahbi, Dan Suciu, Shiv Vaithyanathan, and Jennifer Widom. “Challenges and opportunities with Big Data”. A Community white paper developed by leading researchers across the United States. Whitepaper, Computing Community Consortium, March 2012.
[11] Andrew McAfee and Erik Brynjolfsson. “Big Data” The management revolution”. Harvard Business Review, October 2012:60-68, October 2012.
[12] Jaya Singh and Ajay Rana. “Big Data Analysis- From data to insights”. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 6, June 2013
[13] Jennifer Bachner, Predictive policing: Preventing crime with data and analytics 14, 2013.
[14] Mark H. Haller. Historical roots of police behavior: Chicago, 1890-1925, 10 L. & SOC’Y REV. 303, 303, 1976.
[15] Spatial Hadoop. http://spatialhadoop.cs.umn.edu/
[16] Elizabeth E. Joh. “Policing by numbers: Big Data and the fourth amendment”. 89 Wash. L. Rev. 35, 2014. 2nd March 2014. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2403028.

Download

Capacity Planning Based on Scenario Tree and Passenger Motion Equation (IKIA and MIA)

Hesam Shabaniverki, Amir Reza Mamdoohi, Mahmoud Saffarzadeh

Abstract
Demand for air travel has increased in quantity and quality, like pre-flight services and communications systems, necessitating more serious attention to air terminal capacity planning. Capacity planning, especially when uncertainty exists about future levels of passenger demand is also considered, becomes even more complex. The problem of random, multistage and nonlinear modeling must be adapted to include a multi-commodity network flow structure which shows the flow of passengers at terminals. In this paper a capacity planning approach is utilized based on the concepts of scenario tree and motion equations of passengers, and implemented for passenger terminals of the two major International Airports (IKIA & MIA) in Tehran, Iran. Results of mathematical programming model for these case studies indicate that increasing the capacity of the passenger terminal in IKIA can increase the productivity of the existing space and the whole airport which is also very economical. At MIA, it would be necessary to increase the effective width of corridors and to increase number of processing stations.
Keywords: airport passenger terminal, capacity planning, Multistage Stochastic Programming, Imam Khomeini International Airport, Mehrabad International Airport

References

Journal of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering - 2015 vol. 1 (2)

[1] Solak S., Clarke, J. P. and Johnson, E. L., “Airport Terminal Capacity Planning”, Transportation Research Part B, Vol. 43, No. 6, pp. 659–676, 2009.
[2] Saffarzadeh M. and Braaksma, J.P., “Optimum Design and Operation of Airport Passenger Terminal Buildings”, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Vol. 1703, No. 1, pp. 72–82, 2000.
[3] Riis M. and Andersen, K.A., “Multi Period Capacity Expansion of a Telecommunications Connection with Uncertain Demand”, Computers and Operations Research, Vol. 31, No. 9, 1427–1436, 2004.
[4] Andrade R., A. Lisser, N. Maculan and Plateau, G., “Telecommunication Network Capacity Design for Uncertain Demand,” Computational Optimization and Applications, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 127–146, 2004.
[5] Gupta A., Ravi, R. and Sinha, A., “LP Rounding Approximation Algorithms for Stochastic Network Design”, Mathematics of Operations Research, Vol. 32, No. 2, 345-364, 2007.
[6] Lulli G., and Sen, S., “A Branch-and-Price Algorithm for Multistage Stochastic Integer Programming with Application to Stochastic Batch-Sizing Problems”, Management Science, Vol. 50, 786–796, 2004.
[7] Shabaniverki H., Mamdoohi, A.R. and Saffarzadeh, M., “Stochastic Planning Approach in Airport Passenger Terminals”, Journal of Traffic and Logistics Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1-5, 2013.
[8] Macintosh A. and Wallace, L., “nternational Aviation Emissions to 2025: Can Emissions Be Stabilised without Restricting Demand?” Energy Policy, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 264–273, 2007.
[9] Newell, Gordon Frank. “Applications of queueing theory”, No. 2nd ed. 1982.
[10] Wardrop, J. G.; Whitehead, J. I., “Correspondence. Some Theoretical Aspects of Road Traffic Research”. ICE Proceedings: Engineering Divisions, Vol. 1, No. 5, pp. 767–768, 1952.
[11] Shabaniverki H., “Model of Evaluation of Airport Passenger Terminal Capacity Planning”, Transportation Master of Science Thesis, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, 2013.
[12] Kelton W. D., Sadowski, R.P. and Swets, N.B., “Simulation with Arena”, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 2010.

Download