Soil-structure interaction is one of the most important factors in the analysis; especially for complicated problems such piles are subjected to different loads. Owing to the sensitivity of pile design and analysis to geometry, loading type and soil behavior, it is unavoidable to consider the soil-structure interaction. Using subgrade reaction approach is one of the most practical method in predicting the deflection and bearing capacity of piles subjected to lateral loads. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the exact value of modulus of subgrade reaction. Many full-scale pile test have been performed in order to investigate the behavior of lateral resistance on cast-in-place concrete piles. Finite element (FE) methods also can be applied to predict the variation of horizontal subgrade reaction (???) in three-dimensional analysi. Accordingly, the FE results are compared with the results of some loading tests documented in the literature. The obtained results from numerical analyses are found to be in good agreement with the experimental measurements. The purposes of this paper are to estimate the modulus of horizontal subgrade reaction (kh) for single piles by back-analysis method and the effect of vertical load, pile length and amount of applied loads on the kh value. The results of the back-analysis method are compared to those obtained using existing relationship. Moreover, the results show FE method can be helpful to estimating soil-pile interaction behavior.
Keywords: Modulus of horizontal subgrade reaction, Back-analysis method, Lateral pile behavior, Soil-pile interaction
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One of the important parameters required to evaluate the behavior of soils under loading condition is coefficient of subgrade reaction (Ks), which is being used widely to determine the kind of favorable foundation. There are many theoretical and laboratory approaches that released some relations to achieve the value of Ks. One of the most effective and fastest in-situ procedures to find Ks is plate load test (PLT). In this test a plate with 30 to 45 cm diameter is loaded through incremental multi-stage and the corresponding soil settlement is monitored stage by stage. In recent years numerical methods have been significantly used to simulate some geotechnical tests. This paper presents the three dimensional simulation of PLT, investigated by using finite element code, and compares the results obtained from site studies with the results of the numerical modelling. During verification, it was found that a constant number must be used to be multiplied in the modulus of elasticity as an input of finite element code (ABAQUS). This constant is estimated to be 3. Then, the obtained constant was used to estimate the Ks of another site. The results show that the relation has sufficient accuracy in soft soils but it cannot be reliable in coarse one. Also, the goal of this research was to explore the ability of numerical modeling to evaluate the value of Ks without performing some plate load tests, was achieved.
Keywords: Numerical analysis, plate load test, settlement, coefficient of subgrade reaction.
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In recent years there has been increasing interest in the environmental impacts of aviation, and some airlines have begun to address this issue more seriously. At the same time, competition in the aviation industry has become much tougher. This study focuses on the question of whether showing proactive environmental behavior could work as a differentiation strategy for airlines that are acting more responsibly, and thus help them to improve their competitiveness. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire conducted among 148 air travelers on their opinions and attitudes towards environmental aspects of flying, such as a modern and fuel-efficient fleet, direct flights, and carbon offset. The results showed that indeed there are air passengers who consider the environment when booking a flight, although they were not in the majority. The study also found that the participants saw additional value in a modern fleet, direct flights, and carbon offset, however, not all of them showed a willingness to pay a premium for those aspects.
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Big Data has become one of the buzzwords today. The recent explosion of digital data has led the organization, either private or public, to a new era towards a more efficient decision making. At some point, business decided to use that concept in order to learn what make their clients tick with phrases like ‘sales funnel’ analysis, ‘actionable insights’, and ‘positive business impact’. So, it stands to reason that Big Data was viewed through green (read: money) colored lenses. Somewhere along the line, however someone realized that collecting and processing data doesn’t have to be for business purpose only, but also could be used for other purposes to assist law enforcement or to improve policing or in road safety. This paper presents briefly, how Big Data have been used in the fields of policing order to improve the decision making process in the daily operation of the police. As example, we present a Big Data driven system which is sued to accurately dispatch the patrol cars in a geographic environment. The system is also used to allocate, in real-time, the nearest patrol car to the location of an incident. This system has been implemented and applied in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi in the UAE.
Keywords: Big Data, patrol car allocation, dispatching, GIS
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Demand for air travel has increased in quantity and quality, like pre-flight services and communications systems, necessitating more serious attention to air terminal capacity planning. Capacity planning, especially when uncertainty exists about future levels of passenger demand is also considered, becomes even more complex. The problem of random, multistage and nonlinear modeling must be adapted to include a multi-commodity network flow structure which shows the flow of passengers at terminals. In this paper a capacity planning approach is utilized based on the concepts of scenario tree and motion equations of passengers, and implemented for passenger terminals of the two major International Airports (IKIA & MIA) in Tehran, Iran. Results of mathematical programming model for these case studies indicate that increasing the capacity of the passenger terminal in IKIA can increase the productivity of the existing space and the whole airport which is also very economical. At MIA, it would be necessary to increase the effective width of corridors and to increase number of processing stations.
Keywords: airport passenger terminal, capacity planning, Multistage Stochastic Programming, Imam Khomeini International Airport, Mehrabad International Airport
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