Traffic noise prediction models are required as aids in the design of roads and sometimes in the assessment of existing, or envisaged changes in, traffic noise conditions. In this research, traffic noise and other key parameters (traffic composition, traffic volume and speed) critical to traffic noise at the Central Business District of Ondo town were investigated. Data on traffic composition, traffic volume, speed and traffic noise levels were obtained and fitted into the Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CoRTN) model which is a standard traffic noise prediction model. Data collected showed that the measured noise levels in equivalent noise level (Leq) for the study locations ranged between 68 dB(A) and 76 dB(A); these traffic noise levels exceed World Health Organization (WHO) and Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) permissible limit of 55 dB(A) and 60 dB(A) respectively. Results revealed that the (CoRTN) model showed efficient predictive capability when compared to measured noise levels with an acceptable coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.943.
Keywords: CoRTN, Central Business District, Traffic noise, Ondo town.
 Zannin P. H., Calixto A., Diniz F. B. and Ferreira J. A. A Survey of Urban Noise Annoyance in a Large Brazilian City. The importance of an Environ. Impact Asses, 2013. 23(2):245-255.
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Soil excavation in clayey soils beside existing inhabited and/or historical buildings represents a challenge to the geotechnical engineers in many circumstances. The presence of ground water above the excavation level makes the excavation more costly. Many excavation support systems are available including; soldier pile walls, sheet pile walls, secant piles, tangent piles, diaphragm walls, etc. These techniques may be cost-effectively for large and important projects while small projects represent the majority. The restriction of the lateral movement of the soil underneath the existing adjacent building represents the primary objective for any excavation support system. The xcavation without support system may be achieved by executing both the excavation and foundation in stages to reduce the cost. This paper focuses on the investigation of the boundary of the active zone of medium, stiff, and very stiff clay soils in the vicinity of existing facilities by numerical simulation. The horizontal distance of the boundary (H), depends on many parameters including the vertical pressure from the adjacent structure (q), the clay shear strength (c), the excavation depth (de), and ground water depth (dw). For each clay type a design chart was created representing the relationship between the lateral safe distance of the active zone and the excavation depth for a given surcharge pressure.
Keywords: unsupported excavation, lateral displacement, supporting systems.
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A series of centrifuge tests with base shaking were conducted on the 150 g-ton Centrifuge at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute to study the effect of biaxial base excitation on sand deposits, and to evaluate and assess the performance of the newly commissioned 2D shaker. The study used biaxial base shaking on loose and medium dense sand deposits. Two centrifuge models of 32 and 26 cm-thick, level, Nevada sand deposits, were built in 2D laminar box and subjected to base excitation inflight at 25g to simulate 8 and 6.5 m soil stratum in the field. The models were subjected to uniaxial and biaxial base shakes using artificial and real earthquake records. Several configurations of soil models were calibrated, including dry and saturated models of various densities, using pore fluid with viscosity 25 times higher than water, which was used to simulate water saturated soil deposits in the field. It was found that the acceleration amplitude increases as the base shake propagate through the soil with noticeable difference between uniaxial (1D) and biaxial (2D) models, and that the shaker is capable of applying a variety the base excitations successfully with minimal differences compared to the targeted input motion.
Keywords: Centrifuge, 2D model Shaking, Physical modelling.
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Most slope stability analyses are carried out in two dimensional and consider plane strain conditions, which may favor slope design, but it is not representative of site conditions when slope geometry and pore water conditions are complex and material properties vary over the width of slope. Translational landslides have large difference in the mobilized shear strength on the end vertical sides and back scarp as compared to the base of the failure surface which produce significant differences in 3D and 2D analyses. This introduces a deficiency in the analysis of translational landslides as the current available 3D Limit Equilibrium (LE) slope analysis software does not incorporate shear resistance provided by the end vertical sides during slope failure. As a consequence, 3D factor of safety is underestimated, and back calculated shear strength of the soil is overestimated. In order to incorporate side shear resistance in 3D stability analyses, different researchers proposed different methods for this purpose. This paper describes the importance of 3D analysis and end shear side resistance in slope analyses of Translational landslides through case studies and discusses the different methods for incorporating side resistance in 3D LE analysis to make analysis of translational slides more accurate and practically applicable.
Keywords: 3D Slope stability, Translational landslide, 3D Side resistance, 3D Factor of safety, Slope stability case study.
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