Volume 4 - Issue 1 - 2018

Matric Suction, Swelling and Collapsible Characteristics of Unsaturated Expansive Soils

Saloni Pandya, Ajanta Sachan

Abstract
Unsaturated expansive soils are recognized as one of the most problematic soils owing to its swelling-shrinkage characteristics. The presence of such soils in highway/railway embankments, slopes and earthen dam sites manifests various critical issues during and after the construction of structures. The current research aims on the evaluation of the suction, swelling and collapsible characteristics of four expansive soils possessing different expansiveness and mineralogical composition. A series of constant volume swell pressure, double-oedometer and incontact filter paper tests were performed on four different expansive soils to acquire swelling pressure, collapse potential and matric suction at different degree of saturation. Swelling pressure, collapse potential and matric suction of all expansive soils degraded substantially with increment in the degree of saturation. The results revealed significant impact of magnitude of matric suction on volumetric deformation (swell and collapse) behavior of expansive soils. Swelling and collapse potential were observed to be higher for the expansive soils with larger matric suction. Higher matric suction governed the water intake within interlayer spacing of the Montmorillonite mineral present in expansive soil, which contributed to higher crystalline swelling response. Larger collapse potential indicated development of larger localized deformations within the soil mass owing to higher matric suction.
Keywords: Expansive, Unsaturated, Matric suction, Swell Pressure, Collapse Potential

References

Journal of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering - 2018 vol. 4 (1)


ASTM D5298-10 (2013). Standard test method for measurement of soil potential (suction) using filter paper. D5298-10, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, USA.
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Houston, S. L., Dye, H. B., Zapata, C. E., Walsh, K. D., and Houston, W. N. (2009). Study of expansive soils and residential foundations on expansive soils in Arizona. Journal of performance of constructed facilities, 25 (1), 31-44.
Likos, W. J., & Lu, N. (2004). Hysteresis of capillary stress in unsaturated granular soil. Journal of Engineering mechanics, 130(6), 646-655.
Medero, G. M., Schnaid, F., & Gehling, W. Y. (2009). Oedometer behavior of an artificial cemented highly collapsible soil. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 135(6), 840-843.
Mitchell, J. K., & Soga, K. (2005). Fundamentals of soil behavior, John Wiley & Sons. Nalbantoglu, Z., & Gucbilmez, E. (2001). Improvement of calcareous expansive soils in semi-arid environments. Journal of arid environments, 47(4), 453-463.
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Nowamooz, H., & Masrouri, F. (2010). Suction variations and soil fabric of swelling compacted soils. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 2(2), 129-134.
Pandya, S. and Sachan, A. (2017a). Effect of matric suction and initial static loading on dynamic behavior of unsaturated cohesive soil. International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Taylor & Francis, online available, 23 Feb 2017.
Pandya, S. and Sachan, A. (2017b). Variation of collapse potential and stiffness degradation with matric suction of compacted unsaturated cohesive soil. International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Taylor & Francis, online available, 07 Nov 2017.
Tan, L. and Kong, L. (2001). Study of swelling-shrinkage regularity of montmorillonite crystal and its relation with matric suction, Science in China Series D-Earth Sciences, 44(6), 498-507.
Verma, S. K., & Maru, S. (2013). Behaviourial study of expansive soils and its effect on structures–A review. International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Technology, 2(2), 228-238.

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First Principles Derivation of Differential Equations of Equilibrium of Anisotropic Rectangular Thin Plates on Elastic Foundations

Charles Chinwuba Ike

Abstract
In this paper, the partial differential equations of equilibrium for thin rectangular anisotropic plates resting on elastic foundations are derived from fundamental principles of the theory of elasticity. The derivations were done by simultaneous first principles consideration of the requirements of kinematic relations, material constitutive relations, and the differential equations of static equilibrium. The derivation considered transverse distributed load on the plate domain, and inplane loads. Orthotropic plate on elastic foundation equations and isotropic plate on elastic foundation equations were obtained as special cases of anisotropic plates on elastic foundations.
Keywords: Anisotropic plate, orthotropic plate, isotropic plate, elastic foundation.

References

Journal of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering - 2018 vol. 4 (1)

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Using of the Circular Road Simulator to Evaluate the Performance of Asphalt Mixtures made of Industrial By-Products

Dina K. Kuttah

Abstract
It is well known that the use of by-products (recycled), instead of natural materials help toward more environmentally friendly roads by easing landfill pressures and reducing demand of extraction. Correspondingly, this paper deals with evaluating the mechanical performance of new developed hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixtures made of alternative materials (up to 98% industrial waste materials). The paper sheds light on the long-term performance of the new developed mixtures using the accelerated load testing facilities available at VTI (the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute). The materials, methods and results given in this article are part of ALTERPAVE European -project findings. In this project, different types of industrial by-products, namely, reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), foundry sand and steel slag) have been used in different fractions to find the composition of the best asphalt mixtures made mainly of industrial wastes that can substitute the asphalt mixtures made of natural aggregates. Using the circular road simulator (CRS), twenty- eight asphalt slabs were prepared using natural and industrial by-products and tested under different testing conditions. The CRS test has been used to assess the surface deterioration, wear and the changes in macrotextures of the tested asphalt slabs under wheel loading in dry or wet conditions and under different testing temperatures to simulate summer and winter seasons. In addition, studless and studded tires have been used to traffic the asphalt slabs during the CRS testing to simulate the current roads conditions in different European countries. The test results demonstrated that by controlling the homogeneity of recycled material and by using rejuvenators of suitable quality and quantity, it is possible to obtain paving mixtures with high content of recycled materials that can satisfactory substitute the conventional asphalt mixtures made of natural materials.
Keywords: Accelerated load testing; Foundry sand; Hot mix asphalt; Reclaimed asphalt pavement; Steel slag.

References

Journal of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering - 2018 vol. 4 (1)

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Autonomous Vehicles: Rethinking Traffic Congestion Solutions in Cities

Hamid Iravani, Adrian Anderson, Andrew Bevan

Abstract
Autonomous vehicles (AVs) will be the next technological leap for urban mobility. The question for decision makers and city leaders is whether they contribute to achieving progressive social, environmental, and economic targets or achieve the opposite. AVs offer benefits such as safety, convenience, and enhanced mobility for the young, the elderly, and the disabled. However, AVs themselves will not relieve traffic congestion and in fact could exacerbate traffic and increase vehicle miles traveled (VMT) unless clear regulations and policies are adopted to manage their use. In this paper, we outline the four transport planning tools that are used to relieve traffic congestion: (1) land use measures, (2) transportation demand management, (3) transportation system management, and (4) road widening/new roads. We address how AVs will complement or disrupt the effective use of these tools and conclude that the tools must be overhauled with the advent of automated mobility. Policy recommendations are provided for each tool. In addition, we briefly discuss the new safety challenges posed by integrating AVs into traffic.
Keywords: Autonomous Vehicles; Transportation Demand Management; Transportation System Management; Sprawl

References

Journal of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering - 2018 vol. 4 (1)

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