Unsaturated expansive soils are recognized as one of the most problematic soils owing to its swelling-shrinkage characteristics. The presence of such soils in highway/railway embankments, slopes and earthen dam sites manifests various critical issues during and after the construction of structures. The current research aims on the evaluation of the suction, swelling and collapsible characteristics of four expansive soils possessing different expansiveness and mineralogical composition. A series of constant volume swell pressure, double-oedometer and incontact filter paper tests were performed on four different expansive soils to acquire swelling pressure, collapse potential and matric suction at different degree of saturation. Swelling pressure, collapse potential and matric suction of all expansive soils degraded substantially with increment in the degree of saturation. The results revealed significant impact of magnitude of matric suction on volumetric deformation (swell and collapse) behavior of expansive soils. Swelling and collapse potential were observed to be higher for the expansive soils with larger matric suction. Higher matric suction governed the water intake within interlayer spacing of the Montmorillonite mineral present in expansive soil, which contributed to higher crystalline swelling response. Larger collapse potential indicated development of larger localized deformations within the soil mass owing to higher matric suction.
Keywords: Expansive, Unsaturated, Matric suction, Swell Pressure, Collapse Potential
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In this paper, the partial differential equations of equilibrium for thin rectangular anisotropic plates resting on elastic foundations are derived from fundamental principles of the theory of elasticity. The derivations were done by simultaneous first principles consideration of the requirements of kinematic relations, material constitutive relations, and the differential equations of static equilibrium. The derivation considered transverse distributed load on the plate domain, and inplane loads. Orthotropic plate on elastic foundation equations and isotropic plate on elastic foundation equations were obtained as special cases of anisotropic plates on elastic foundations.
Keywords: Anisotropic plate, orthotropic plate, isotropic plate, elastic foundation.
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It is well known that the use of by-products (recycled), instead of natural materials help toward more environmentally friendly roads by easing landfill pressures and reducing demand of extraction. Correspondingly, this paper deals with evaluating the mechanical performance of new developed hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixtures made of alternative materials (up to 98% industrial waste materials). The paper sheds light on the long-term performance of the new developed mixtures using the accelerated load testing facilities available at VTI (the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute). The materials, methods and results given in this article are part of ALTERPAVE European -project findings. In this project, different types of industrial by-products, namely, reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), foundry sand and steel slag) have been used in different fractions to find the composition of the best asphalt mixtures made mainly of industrial wastes that can substitute the asphalt mixtures made of natural aggregates. Using the circular road simulator (CRS), twenty- eight asphalt slabs were prepared using natural and industrial by-products and tested under different testing conditions. The CRS test has been used to assess the surface deterioration, wear and the changes in macrotextures of the tested asphalt slabs under wheel loading in dry or wet conditions and under different testing temperatures to simulate summer and winter seasons. In addition, studless and studded tires have been used to traffic the asphalt slabs during the CRS testing to simulate the current roads conditions in different European countries. The test results demonstrated that by controlling the homogeneity of recycled material and by using rejuvenators of suitable quality and quantity, it is possible to obtain paving mixtures with high content of recycled materials that can satisfactory substitute the conventional asphalt mixtures made of natural materials.
Keywords: Accelerated load testing; Foundry sand; Hot mix asphalt; Reclaimed asphalt pavement; Steel slag.
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Autonomous vehicles (AVs) will be the next technological leap for urban mobility. The question for decision makers and city leaders is whether they contribute to achieving progressive social, environmental, and economic targets or achieve the opposite. AVs offer benefits such as safety, convenience, and enhanced mobility for the young, the elderly, and the disabled. However, AVs themselves will not relieve traffic congestion and in fact could exacerbate traffic and increase vehicle miles traveled (VMT) unless clear regulations and policies are adopted to manage their use. In this paper, we outline the four transport planning tools that are used to relieve traffic congestion: (1) land use measures, (2) transportation demand management, (3) transportation system management, and (4) road widening/new roads. We address how AVs will complement or disrupt the effective use of these tools and conclude that the tools must be overhauled with the advent of automated mobility. Policy recommendations are provided for each tool. In addition, we briefly discuss the new safety challenges posed by integrating AVs into traffic.
Keywords: Autonomous Vehicles; Transportation Demand Management; Transportation System Management; Sprawl
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