Single-vehicle crashes on rural two-lane highways impose a considerable risk to road users due to their higher severity outcome compared to other crashes on these facilities. Furthermore, considerable variation in the severity among various age groups (young, middle-aged, and older drivers) has been noticed, corroborating the need for analyzing age-classified data. Crash data from Alabama was compiled and classified based on the age group. For each age class, a generalized ordered logit model was developed to identify the effect of various variables on injury severity. This model can consider ordered nature of severity as well as provide flexibility in calculating the parameter estimates. Driver gender, seatbelt use, damage to the vehicle, driving on county roads, hitting a fixed object and animal, and speeding were found to be significant in all developed models. Intoxication is a significant factor that affects injury severity for young drivers. Time of day also significantly affects the injury severity for older drivers. Vehicle age and driving with invalid license were not found to affect injury severity for older drivers, while they affected the other age groups. It was shown that some factors have significant effect on the injury severity for all age groups while others have varying effect across different age groups. The results of this study highlight the importance of considering separate injury severity models for different age groups, specifically separating older drivers from others, as the difference among older drivers and others are substantial.
Keywords: Age Difference; Single-Vehicle Crash; Rural Two-Lane Highways; Generalized Ordered Logit Model
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Timing actuated traffic signals is usually done by methodologies considering minimizing delay times, stop times, queue length etc. as the core idea. In none of such methodologies the effects of other adjacent intersections are considered. In other words, there is no control over queue congestion in such methodologies. In the proposed algorithm of traffic signs optimization, using an internal (RT/IMPOST) metering policy maintains an optimum queue length ratio within the network. In this method, the effect of upstream intersection is considered in timing procedure. In this paper a traffic signals optimization method is elaborated and proposed for the whole network and has been particularized in three aspects: 1) The queue length ratio within the whole network: in this aspect, the queue length ratio has been conserved within an optimum interval 2) the queue time ratio: the time ratio of vehicles movement in congested condition to the free flow condition has been restricted and 3) the queue speed ratio: in this case the proportion of vehicles speed in congested condition to free flow speed has been restricted and conserved. The aim of these algorithms is to minimize the difference of queue length, time and speed ratios with their corresponding optimum values which could lead into a more optimized timing and determining efficient green phase timing for each intersection. With comparison of the results taken from each of these three algorithms, it was cleared up that queue length ratio algorithm has better results for oversaturated networks and could ameliorate the traffic conditions better compared to the other algorithms.
Keywords: Network internal metering, queue length ratio algorithm, queue time ratio algorithm, queue speed ratio algorithm, traffic signals coordination
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According to the Australian Work Health and Safety Strategy 2012-2022, the prevention of road transport accidents has been identified as a national priority, and efforts have been made by national regulators to prevent heavy vehicle related workplace incidents and accidents. In recent years, much attention has been given to heavy vehicle drivers fatigue management. Increasing evidence suggests that long working hours negatively influence heavy vehicle drivers physiology, health, and safety. However, there is little empirical research in the heavy vehicle transport sector in Australia to identify the influence of working hours management on drivers fatigue and consequently, on the risk of crashes and injuries. There is no national legislation regulating the number of hours or kilometres travelled by heavy vehicle drivers. Consequently, it is almost impossible to define a standard number of hours or kilometres for heavy vehicle drivers in a safety management system. This paper reviews the existing studies concerning safe system interventions such as tachographs in relation to fatigue caused by long working hours. This paper also reviews the literature to identify the influence of frequency of rest breaks on the reduction of work-related road transport accidents involving heavy vehicles. A framework from existing studies is presented to manage heavy vehicle drivers fatigue, which may result in the reduction of injuries and fatalities involving heavy vehicles.
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Providing sufficient supply considering future demand is one of transportation management policies these days. Urban multilevel highways can positively affect congested streets by increasing network operational speed and decreasing delay time though it is costly. The current paper aims to present a methodology for comparing the multilevelization capability of urban corridors considering transportation and economic parameters. Mashhad which is one of the main cities of Iran is chosen as the case study. Primary corridors are identified among the most effective main streets of the city. As a result, 6 selected corridors are modeled in a macroscopic software and analyzed. Benefit assessment is done based on two factors: network total traveled time (Vehicle. Hour of travel) and network total traveled distance (Vehicle. Kilometer). Next, the benefit to cost ratio is calculated for a 10-years period employing VHT reduction and decrease in fuel consumption and air pollution as benefits, and construction and maintenance costs as cost. The results show that the best scenario is multileveling Ferdowsi street.
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An increase in motorized mode for school travels has a result of morning traffic and students physical inactivity. Although, some research has been conducted was done considering economic, social and environmental parameters of students travel behavior, but the effect of attitudes for mode choice was not considered significantly. The purpose of this research is to discuss effects of attitude towards safety and traffic together with economic and social parameters on high school mode choice (specially walking). To collect the economic and social data and investigation of safety and traffics attitudes, written questionnaires were distributed among 656 students of 7 high schools (public and private, girls and boys) in two educational districts of Kerman. Choosing case samples were done classified and randomly. A multinomial logit model was applied for investigation of different parameters effects on mode choice for school trip. to decrease safety and traffic attitudes variables, an exploratory factor analysis was applied. Results show that students which have no accessibility to public transportation and evaluate highly their Safety knowledge are walking to school with more possibility.
Keywords: School mode choice, High school studentsLogit model, Attitude, Factor analysis
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