Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has been applied with geotechnical techniques such as Cone Penetrometer Test (CPT) and laboratory tests for subsoil characterization to investigate the causes of the deteriorated highway pavement. Eleven Electrical Resistivity (ERT) Profiling lines were established using Wenner array configuration in combination with ten cone penetrating data and eleven soil samples. The inverted ERT data consist of two to three geoelectric layers and were interpreted as topsoil (clay/sandy clay/clayey sand/sand), sand/saturated sand and dry sand/highly resistive sand/weathered rock with overlying resistivity values ranges between 23 – 550 Ω m, 100 – 1000 Ω m and 500– 2800 Ω m respectively. The cone penetrometer test (CPT) value ranges from 30 to 82 kg/cm2. In addition, the laboratory analyses conducted on the bulk soil samples taken at 0 - 1 m depth includes; the optimum moisture content (OMC), maximum dry density (MDD), and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) ranges from 11.3 to 12.2%, 1720 kg/m3 to 1960 kg/m3 and 8 to 13% respectively, while for the Liquid Limit and Plasticity Index tests of the soil samples gives 28 to 52% and 9 to 17% respectively indicating that the subsoil material within study area are of poor to good geotechnical properties. The results of the integrated approach, including both geophysical and geotechnical methods have helped to identify the cause of the highway deterioration in some part of the study area which is attributed to the poor subgrade material along the region. Thus, the need for soil improvement can be implemented to enhance the stability of the subgrade materials in the poor region for subsequent road construction and design.
Keywords: Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Cone Penetrometer Test, subsurface characterization, road construction
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Back-to-Back walls are the complex geometry of MSE walls and are often used as approach embankments and bridge abutments. Surcharge loads acting on the Back to Back Mechanically Stabilized Earth Wall (BBMSEW) should be applied on BBMSE walls to understand the realistic behavior. In this study, Numerical modeling is performed with Plaxis 2D to understand the consequence of surcharge on earth pressures, surface settlement profiles of BBMSE walls. A typical ratio of W/H= 1.55 is taken where a combination of a reinforced and unreinforced zone is present in BBMSEW for analysis and reinforcement stiffness of (J) from 50 to 50000 kN/m is used to study the flexibility of the backfill with the reinforcement within. The stress analysis at the transition plane of the reinforced and unreinforced zone showed the arching phenomena. Due to the surcharge, the lateral pressure reduced nearly 42.31% from the Rankine’s active condition and the vertical stresses are very close to the analytical arching equation derived and reduced approximately 63.51% from the overburden pressure after surcharge is applied. It is found that the surface settlement profiles for a particular stiffness (i.e., J=50000kN/m) at different wall heights are decreasing from top to bottom. At 6m height for J=50kN/m, it is observed that the settlements have occurred in the reinforced zone whereas for the J=50,000kN/m the settlements were observed only in the unreinforced zone. From the analysis, it is concluded that arching is predominant in the transition zone of BBMSEW and must be considered for the estimation of earth pressure and design of BBMSEW. Keywords: Surcharge load, vertical stress, Arching, Numerical model, Back-to-back walls, Surface Settlement profile
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